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Green Drinks Anyone?
by Atlantic Salmon Federation on 

by Don Ivany, ASF Director of Programs for Newfoundland and Labrador

We all realize how important the natural environment is, but for an organization attracting volunteers and members to the cause, the effort is never easy. An aging population, along with many competing goals for younger folks means that new ways to attract talent and focused discussion are definitely required.

The Western Newfoundland Environmental Centre (WEC) is one local organization on the forefront of innovative outreach. Recently they launched a community outreach program called “Green Drinks” in partnership with Grenfell College.

Green Drinks is a series of four informal social events over the next few months where each evening will feature two guest speakers, one academic, one a community person, providing views on important environmental and conservation issues.

Those attending will ask questions of the speakers with the idea of developing an engaging conversation on the predetermined topics. One never knows - each event could be a stepping stone for someone to become involved in addressing an important environmental issue.

First off in mid-November was an evening at Bootlegger Brewery, with Dr. Bob Scott, environmental professor and researcher from Grenfell College, along with myself, on behalf of ASF.

The topic: Do you think aquaculture can be a sustainable part of the NL fisheries.

ASF's Don Ivany speaks at the GREEN DRINKS EVENING.

The evening was implemented with creativity: It took place in a bar, but far more of a challenge was the first major winter storm howling outside, with winds screaming at up to 125 km/hr and the beginning of a 45 cm. dump of snow facing those who came. Perhaps it was the challenge of the elements, but there was a full house with standing room only.

I focused on the environmental impacts of open net-pen aquaculture world-wide, and the inadequate aquaculture regulations being used in Newfoundland, as shown by the Gardner-Pinfold study commissioned a few years ago by ASF.

I explained Grieg’s massive Placentia Bay project, plus the province’s attempt to approve it without an environmental assessment. My point was this: How can aquaculture be environmentally sustainable if the regulators are reluctant to acknowledge or address the very real impacts.
Dr. Scott added a very different perspective by focusing on the chemical and biological impacts of the industry on the environment, plus disease transfer to wild stocks.

We found agreement that open net-pen salmon farming, as practiced in NL, was not sustainable, and there is no political will to transition to better methods.

The questions and comments flipped around the room; many shedding new and interesting insights on the topic.

Green Drinks worked  as a format, even with the elements throwing us a special mix of weather as the evening darkened. And maybe, just perhaps, there will be a few more good stewards of the environment emerging from the give and take of this great evening.

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Snorkel Surveys and Living Rivers
by Atlantic Salmon Federation on 

by Don Ivany, ASF Director of Programs for Newfoundland and Labrador

There was an overwhelming sense of excitement as we all sat down at the board room table last week at the Bay St. George South Area Development Association (BSGADA) office in McKay’s, NL.   

This tiny but very active rural community is located on NL’s Southwest coast in St. Georges Bay, which is also home to approximately ten major salmon rivers.  However, Harry’s River is the only one of the ten that currently has a counting facility.   

Middle Barachois River. A snorkel count is the best option for assessing the river's salmon returns and likely egg production. Photo Don Ivany/ASF

No new data has been available for the rest of the rivers in this area since about 2008, when DFO conducted their last annual snorkel survey.  Recognizing a need for more science, the BSGADA thought it was time to start doing these snorkel surveys again. 

In preparation, and under the leadership of their current president, Eric Legge, the association decided to partner with a private group called Interval Associates, led by well known naturalist and president, Kathleen Blanchard.  Together they submitted a joint proposal to the Atlantic Salmon Conservation Foundation last fall for funding support to conduct the snorkel surveys, and to also conduct some habitat surveys, and creel surveys.   

Their application was successful and for the past few months under the name ‘Living Rivers’, they made plans to organize and conduct these surveys.  The habitat and creel surveys began back in June, while the snorkel surveys were scheduled to take place during mid-August, at the same time they would normally have taken place in previous years. 

Rex Porter, who for many years was Section Head of DFO’s Salmonid Division, before his official retirement in 2005, was contracted to help organize and coordinate the snorkel surveys.  His previous experience in leading such surveys was a great asset to all involved. 

Recognizing that some twenty plus people would be required to conduct the surveys over a five-day period Rex immediately put out a call for other volunteers to help out. The response was fast and a number of groups like the Qalipu First Nation, the NL Conservation Core (Green Team), and the Atlantic Salmon Federation were quick to come onboard. Rounding out the request were a number of JCP Students, along with DFO who provided all the wet suits and snorkeling gear, as well as a number of Guardians and Fishery Officers who knew these rivers well.   

On monday of last week, everyone met at the BSGADA office for the first time to begin the week-long survey and it was plainly obvious that everyone was anxious and excited to hit the water. 

First however, some important preliminary training was required.  The first morning involved in-class  training regarding proper snorkel survey procedures and various techniques involved, as well as safety and emergency training.  This was followed in the afternoon by some actual trial runs on Crabbes River to insure everyone was conducting counts properly, and that the counts were accurate.  Individual survey crews were then established based on the physical fitness of individuals, and the extreme difficulty involved to access and swim various sections of the river.  Each crew consisted of four or five swimmers (more on larger pools), and a recorder. 

Checking map and GPS coordinates at beginning of site just below the falls on Robinson’s River.  In the photo from left to right:  Don Ivany, Zack Burrows, Kathleen Blanchard, Bailey Hulan, Jordan Locke, and Sherry Pittman

Each crew also had a team leader who was responsible for the overall safety of the crew, as well as insuring that the surveys were conducted properly and the data collected was recorded appropriately. 

The second day started with each of the four teams involved being strategically dropped off at predetermined locations along Middle Barachois River and Robinson’s River, to begin the section of river assigned to them.  Each team was responsible for covering a minimum of 8-10 kms per day, and up to 16 kms per day on some sections assigned to them.  The first two days of the survey went great despite some warm air temperatures.  Then the weather forecast changed and predicted heavy rain for the next two days, which would have threatened the survey had it materialized.  Thankfully someone up above must have been looking out for us because the rain did not come, and we were able to complete the rest of the survey by Friday as scheduled. 

Except for an odd blister or two and some minor bumps and bruises along the way there were no serious injuries encountered, which is always a big plus.  It should be noted that these surveys are not for the weak and there are many risks involved along the way.  In fact, completing these surveys was like completing an extreme obstacle course and marathon combined.  As one of my crew members said one day, if this doesn’t kill you it will make you stronger.  No wonder than that for everyone who participated in and completed the survey last week there was a great sense of accomplishment.  Not just knowing they had completed an extreme endurance test but that, collectively they had helped complete the overall objective of collecting some very much needed science on the status of adult returns in those rivers this year.  Science that will hopefully lead to better management decisions regarding these stocks in the future.

At the end of our section on Barachois River near the Trans Canada Highway.  Fom left to right: Don Ivany, Ben Andrews, and Zack Burrows.

Not only was it a lot of fun for everyone who participated in the surveys last week, but for many it was a life changing experience.  Being able to snorkel these rivers and see wild Atlantic salmon up close and personal in their underwater world was akin to swimming with sea turtles, or whales and dolphins.  Being able to travel remote sections of these rivers that have seldom been seen by others, and to soak up the splendor and tranquility was beyond compare.   To quote Zack Burrows, with Interval Associates, who participated in the survey,…. “ 

This was an amazing experience, I truly believe this past week has been the most fun I have had at work – if you can even call it work”.   

As for me personally, it was great meeting new people and developing new friendships, while also getting to renew some old acquaintances.  But perhaps more importantly it was about building new partnerships with individuals and groups who share a common passion and vision.  It was about ensuring our ‘Living Rivers’ and the wild Atlantic salmon that swim in them will continue to do so long after most of us are gone. 

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Un aperçu au 30 juin
by Atlantic Salmon Federation on 

Charles Cusson, Directeur des programmes au Québec

Région du Québec

Les données présentées dans ce rapport proviennent des sites web et des médias sociaux des différentes rivières au Québec.

Nous vous rappelons de bien vouloir enregistrer vos remises à l’eau.  Les données sont très importantes pour nos gestionnaires afin qu’ils puissent calculer un succès de pêche précis.  Bonne pêche!

Un saumon frais de la Bonaventure : Photo: Nathan Wilbur

Les données suivantes représentent un aperçu au 30 juin avec les comparatifs des quatre dernières années s'ils sont disponibles et seront présentées dans ce format à la fin de chaque mois de la saison de pêche.

Rivière York – début de saison le 25 mai. 
La rivière York est une des rivières exemptées du plan de gestion au 1er juillet et si 600 saumons sont dénombrés, la récolte de grand saumon est autorisée.   Pour l’instant, les gestionnaires permettent la récolte des grands saumons depuis le 1er juillet et compléteront un décompte d’ici le 10 juillet. 

La York, comme les deux autres rivières de Gaspé connaissent un manque d’eau important.  En date du 4 juillet, la station hydrique située à 1,4 km en aval du ruisseau Dinner Island indique un débit de 5.5 mètres cubes par seconde.  Le résultat du décompte sera partagé lorsqu’il sera disponible au

** Les données disponibles des captures sont affichés jusqu’en date du 24 juin.

Un beau spécimen de la Bonaventure graciée par Amélie Thériault : Photo : Olivier Thériault.

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That Smolt is Pugnacious
by Atlantic Salmon Federation on 

by Lewis Hinks, ASF Director of Programs for Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Photos by Lewis Hinks/ASF

On a recent visit to the West River Sheet Harbour restoration project, one comment really caught my attention: “Individual salmon smolt have individual personalities.”  Wait, what??!! Did I hear this right??

Apparently so. Dr. Christina Semeniuk of the University of Windsor in Ontario and her Laboratory Manager Kevyn Janisse were both at the West River Sheet Harbour site, studying the individual behavior of various wild smolt and trying to understand if it is affected by acidified water or by the liming treatments being used on that system to return the ecosystem to near neutral pH.

It is intriguing research, and a little bizarre to the uninformed.

West River Sheet Harbour Camp
West River Sheet Harbour Camp where Dr. Semeniuk is conducting experiments on Atlantic salmon smolt personality and the impact of acidified water.

Wild smolt are taken from the smolt wheel in the in the main West River which is being treated for acidification and from fyke nets in the untreated West Branch tributary and held in tanks next to the river.

Dr. Semeniuk works with the test setup for smolt personality research.

While waiting for the next test phase to begin, Dr. Semeniuk tells me about the five personality traits they are observing. Those are:

1.  shy - bold: an individual’s response to a risky situation in a familiar or unfamiliar environment

2. exploration - avoidance: an individual’s response to a novel situation, such as an unfamiliar environment or object that is not easily confused with a potential threat

3. activity: the activity level of an individual in a non-risky and familiar environment

4. aggressiveness: an individual’s pugnacity towards conspecifics in a social setting

5. sociability: an individual’s non-aggressive tendency to seek or avoid members of the same species

The test tanks are identical, in that they all have the same features and are the same size. There is a cinder block in the center to provide cover, gravel covering the tank bottom and each tank has a GoPro camera mounted overhead, recording all phases of the testing.

Kevin turns on a GoPro camera
Kevyn Janisse turns on a GoPro camera

The first phase of the testing is to observe how the fish respond to their new environment.

Dr. Semeniuk talks about how different fish display these character types. Some are very shy and hide in the cinder block, some slowly and deliberately explore their new surroundings, some just hunker down in the tank, some move quickly, almost darting around the tank as if trying to escape – and maybe they are.  The fish are allowed to adjust to their new surroundings for a half hour.

Phase 2 of the research is the introduction of food and how they react. Fish may be under stress or upset by the new environment, but they still have to eat to survive. How they adjust to the new environment and feed is quite important to the testing. They food used is natural insects and worms found in the environment.

Phase 3, is really interesting. After allowing the fish to ‘relax’ for ten minutes after the food trial, the smolts now are threatened – the threat taking the form of ‘Cletus’, a cormorant decoy.

Dr. Semeniuk introduces "Cletus" to the smolt's environment.

How the fish react to a predator is key to their survival. Many years ago, I read a research document that described how salmon that were stressed by acidification had reduced ability to feed, adjust to salt water, migrate and avoid predators. This phase gets to that last point. Some smolts swim up to Cletus, but that is not a good survival tactic. Some scatter for the cinder block and some just take it in stride. All interesting responses.

Phase 4 is the introduction of food again after another 10-minute rest following the Cletis incident. Again, though scared and stressed, a fish still has to eat to survive. How they react can be a indication of the impacts of acidification.

After a 1-hour recovery from all the tests, the smolts are then put into salt water for 24 hours to see how they adjust to the marine environment. Blood samples and gill samples are then taken to be analyzed.

Dr. Eddie Halfyard, who is leading the major restoration work on the West River Sheet Harbour tells me the major crux of the project is really asking how acidification affects personality and physiology and how these interactions may ultimately impact marine survival. The link between freshwater and marine is important.

 As Eddie explains, the blood samples are looking at blood osmolality; the balance between water and electrolytes (salts) in the blood. It's an indicator of a smolts ability to deal with saltwater.

The gill samples are looking at sodium-potassium ATPase, an enzyme responsible for regulating salt concentrations in cells by pumping sodium out of gill cells and potassium into gill cells. If it is doing its job, we expect that the bloodwork above would be 'normal' after a 24-hour saltwater challenge. Also, we sampled some smolts before the saltwater challenge looking for the amount of aluminum on the gills.

This is all pretty high-tech stuff and the West River project is on the cutting edge of salmon restoration for acidified rivers. It holds a lot of hope an promise.

So, the next time a salmon refuses your fly, don’t blame yourself, that fish might just not have the right personality.

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Can DFOs new striper rules bring balance in the Gulf?
by Atlantic Salmon Federation on 

Nathan Wilbur, ASF Director of New Brunswick Programs

Striped bass are appearing in the hundreds of thousands in the lower Miramichi River, creating a threat to the recovery of wild Atlantic salmon there - and elsewhere in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and beyond. Photo ASF

On April 13, two days before the opening of the recreational fishing season in New Brunswick, Fisheries and Oceans Canada announced  changes to the rules on striped bass for the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence population.

  • Instead of 1 or 2 striped bass per day, anglers in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence (N.B., N.S., P.E.) will be allowed to retain 3 fish per day for the entire season.

  • A spawning closure that lasted 9 days and covered 10km (6 miles) of the Northwest Miramichi last year will shrink to 5 days and cover 6.5km in 2018.

The changes are the result of both the meteoric rise of striped bass in the Gulf and perhaps new information on how other species are affected. It’s a fascinating story not witnessed before in living memory and poses serious questions for scientists and regulators. However, the population has been huge in the past. Records of fisheries from Miramichi show catches of hundreds of thousands of pounds in the 1870s.

From a few thousand to nearly 1 million

The phenomenal growth of the striped bass population has been headline news in recent years. According to DFO's latest assessment, the number of large, spawning striped bass has exploded from 318,000 in 2016 to a whopping 994,000 in 2017, a three-fold increase in just one year. All these fish come annually to the population's only known spawning grounds – the  Northwest Miramichi River estuary.   

The bass explosion is remarkable, especially considering the total numbers of stripers was estimated between 3,000 and 5,000 in the 1990s. It was low enough for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) to assess the population as threatened in 2004. Now stripers are showing up in places where they’ve never been seen before.

On the left, a map shows the native range of striped bass in our region. The star covering the Northwest Miramichi estuary marks the only known successful spawning location of the southern Gulf of St-Lawrence population (courtesy of DFO). On the right, a map includes a sample of striped bass sightings that were reported to ASF in 2017, showing northern extension of range.

Conventional knowledge on striped bass says that after spawning in the spring, most head for the coast, cruising for food in the salt water. But there’s evidence now that some stripers are instead feeding in rivers for the summer. Anglers have been catching them regularly in salmon pools during the past couple fishing seasons, including more than 100 kilometres upstream in the Southwest Miramichi, on the Restigouche and rivers on the Gaspe peninsula.

Typically, that in the late fall the southern Gulf striped bass return to the Miramichi estuary to overwinter, but even that appears to be changing. ASF has seen photographic evidence of striped bass caught through the ice this past winter in Labrador, as well as large schools of striped bass hanging around the lower part of some Gaspe rivers.

The reasons for this remarkable recovery and growth may be attributable to fishery restrictions, combined with warmer temperatures and a more productive Gulf of St-Lawrence. There is also speculation that the closure of the mill in Miramichi, and the improvement of water quality where the bass usually overwinter, may have played a role.

An angler fishing through the ice near Cartwright, Labrador landed a striped bass in March 2018. (Facebook)

Managing the boom, worrying about a bust

DFO’s latest management changes for the recreational striped bass fishery are incremental. Striped bass are a native species in the southern Gulf and have co-evolved with other native species like Atlantic salmon. Their rebound is an epic success story on its own, and clearly DFO doesn’t want to repeat mistakes of the past, when overharvesting by commercial fisheries and as bycatch helped drive the population to the brink.

In the last decades of the 20th century, as landings crashed and the number of striped bass in the Miramichi was assessed at just a few thousand, DFO closed the commercial fishery in 1996. The recreational and aboriginal fisheries followed four years later.

This graph shows the rise of striped bass in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, from a few thousand individuals to 1 million large spawners in less than two decades. Numbers (at left edge) are in a logarithmic scale. (Courtesy of DFO)

After the closures, DFO set a recovery target of 21,600 spawners in 5 out of 6 years before they would reopen an aboriginal fishery. If numbers hit 31,200 fish in 3 out of 6 years they would consider reopening the recreational fishery. In 2011, both those targets were met and have been exceeded every year since.

Striped bass were downgraded from threatened to a species of special concern, and in 2014, DFO established a 2-year plan for the recreational fishery. They have been loosening the rules consistently since then, based on an adaptive management approach.

 Stripers eat wild Atlantic salmon

For years, the underlying question around striped bass has been, ‘What does this mean for salmon?’ The Miramichi valley is salmon country. People spend more than $16 million on salmon related activities there every year, creating over 600 full-time jobs. There are important First Nations food fisheries for salmon as well. It’s no wonder a wild Atlantic salmon wears a crown atop New Brunswick’s coat of arms.

N.B.’s coat of arms symbolizes the connection of residents to the natural resources of the province. (Government of New Brunswick)

Everyone has suspected striped bass are eating or injuring salmon smolt headed downriver to begin their first ocean migration and ASF’s long-term tracking has provided circumstantial evidence. In the last five years, the number of tagged smolt that reach an array of receivers stretched across outer Miramichi Bay has decreased from around 70 per cent to about 25-30 per cent.

In other words, almost three out of every four smolt leaving the Miramichi are dead before they reach the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the beginning of their ocean migration to distant feeding grounds.

In response to these concerns DFO conducted a stomach contents analysis of striped bass which showed smolt were a very small portion of their diet. There was a lot of skepticism about the results, and last year ASF and DFO teamed up to take a second look with a different approach.

This 2017 picture from the Restigouche River shows that striped bass are preying on juvenile salmon in rivers aside from the Miramichi as well. Courtesy Greg Dixon

As a result, in January 2018 a new study was published in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. By comparing the movement of tagged smolt and tagged bass, ASF biologists were able to determine that when a tagged smolt started behaving exactly like a striped bass it was sitting in the stomach of the predator.   

The study found annual predation rates are typically between 10 and 18 per cent for smolt leaving the Southwest and Northwest Miramichi systems, but these number are conservative. For example, bass need to retain the smolt, and its acoustic tag, in their stomach for about 4 days to register enough pings for the researchers to make a determination. The bass may not even swallow the smolt, but an attack could cause lethal harm or serious injury.

Also, the study was based on data from 2013 through to 2015, when the number of spawning striped bass was between 250,000 and 301,000. Now that the spawning population has tripled to nearly 1 million, logic would suggest that the predation rate on smolt has also increased. More research and fine tuning of the models is needed to determine with certainty how much of the 40 per cent point drop in smolt survival drop is truly caused by striped bass.

For comparison, on ASF’s other Gulf of St. Lawrence study rivers, the Restigouche and Cascapedia, smolt survival rates haven’t changed much in the last five years compared with previous years when the bass population was lower. These salmon don’t encounter the iron curtain of predators on their way to sea because the bass are concentrated in their spawning area on the Northwest Miramichi at this time.

Can we restore balance?

DFO’s gradual loosening of recreational angling rules, and the few thousand fish allocated for First Nations’ food, social, and ceremonial purposes will likely cause negligible reduction in bass numbers – but we cannot say for certain because DFO does not yet document catch or effort in the recreational fishery .

The only attempt to document catch and effort was conducted by the Miramichi Watershed Management Committee, which determined recreational harvest during the spring on the Miramichi to be about 2000 bass. Only by running ASF’s predation models over several years could we say for sure whether there is a reduction in smolt predation. This highlights the importance of maintaining ASF’s long term smolt tracking program.

In the face of this incredible abundance, we should be positive and recognize the opportunities available. That’s why ASF has been encouraging the development of a small, well-managed commercial fishery led by First Nations. Ideally, such an enterprise would provide economic opportunities to the entire region, help strike a balance in the ecosystem, and avoid the overfishing that occurred in the past.

Even without taking more bass, there are other ways to get closer to an equilibrium. For example, if smelt and gaspereau stocks were more abundant, they would provide a greater variety of prey for striped bass and act as cover for smolt leaving the system by overwhelming the bass. The last time striped bass were at high abundance in the 1870s, so too were smelt, with annual landings around 2-3 million pounds. With more forage fish around, the entire ecosystem would be healthier. Measures to increase these stocks are worth investigating. The first option within DFO’s immediate control would be to reduce the take in commercial fisheries, or buy out commercial licenses for the greater good. After all, our perspective should be broad, focused on the entire ecosystem, not narrowed down to making a choice between two native species.

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