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The Cure for Leaky Waders
by Graham on 

The end of summer and the official start of desk season is on the horizon. The truth though, is that field work only comprises about 15% of our time, much of the rest is in front of a screen and working with the data we collect. Some of us are out more, Eric spent three weeks in Newfoundland and Labrador this summer, and some of us less, we probably don't let Jason out enough. Field work is definitely an enjoyable part of the job though, even standing in the Restigouche in the pouring rain, cold water and leaky waders.


This week, I've been checking in on some temperature loggers we have around southwest New Brunswick. For many years, we've been placing them in the spring and removing them in the fall. Last year we started using permanent installations in a few spots. These allow the loggers to remain in place year-round and give more information on the spring thaw and fall cool down periods. Since we want them to be submerged the entire year, they are placed in very low spots and are only accessible at this point in the season when the water is way down.


So I've been trooping about from spot to spot and wading into the rivers to retrieve, download and re-deploy these units. It's an enjoyable way to spend an afternoon and I often bump into friendly people along the way. We'll use the data immediately to assess the best time to begin our juvenile surveys, we don't want to risk the stress of surveying when temperatures are too high for the little fish.

Oh, and the cure for leaky waders? It's quite simple really, only wear them when the water is warm, the sun is out and you don't really need them and they'll never leak a single drop.

Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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Back to School
by Graham on 

September is fast approaching and this week we're saying goodbye to our summer students from Dalhousie University. Heather and Michael have been with us for a few months now and made great contributions to our work. Both spent some long hours in front of computers as well as getting out in the field and getting their feet wet. Heather spent three weeks in Newfoundland and Labrador looking for post-smolts and working on our tracking and fish health projects. She proved to be as adept with big heavy fyke nets as working with tracking data.

Michael spent at least a day a week in the field locally as well as heading up to Miramichi for mid-season downloads and equipment retrievals. Most of the rest of the time he was looking at data from our kelt tracking. For example, he produced the plot shown below that shows how long tagged kelts spent in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, categorized by river and whether they displayed alternate or consecutive spawning patterns. There is a lot more work from both students that we'll be working in to our various analyses as the work continues.


We all enjoyed working with Heather and Michael this summer and wish them the best for the upcoming semesters.

Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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Your ASF Team
by Graham on 

Every year in August, the ASF team gathers at our offices in Saint Andrews, NB for a few day. Staff come from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec and the US. We spend some time planning ahead, sharing news and program updates. It's all centered around our fight to protect wild Atlantic salmon and their habitat. It was good timing this year with the recent news of the new Greenland deal which will immediately protect thousands of adult wild Atlantic salmon. With staff normally spread over different provinces, states and countries, we are always in touch digitally, but it really pays to get everyone together in the same room, even if only for a few days. Like our members, we are focused on the future and undertaking programs and projects that will benefit the salmon we all care about.


Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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It's Not All Glitz and Glamour
by Graham on 

Some days it seems like working in salmon conservation is all sunshine and boat trips. Nice days, beautiful views of flora and fauna, nice folks to bump into on the water and the sun in your face. Then there are days when you're up to your armpits in rotting marine bio-fouling and wondering if you'll ever get the smell out. Today was one of the latter.


Eric and Heather safely returned from Newfoundland and Labrador with only a few hiccups on the way. We were happy to have them back in the office until we had to unload the truck and clean the gear. Boy did the fyke net stink. But gear doesn't last well unless maintained so we set to work spreading stuff out to scrub, spray and clean it. A few batches of disinfectant to keep any unwanted hitchhikers at bay and things are looking up. Everything that goes in the water for a length of time acquires a layer of growth on it and if we didn't clean it, it would gain weight and size with each deployment. Not the fanciest part of the job, but cleaning and maintenance goes a long way to get the most out of equipment.

Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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Orcas? That Was Last Week.
by Graham on 

ASF Biologist Eric and Dalhousie summer student Heather have been in Newfoundland and Labrador for nearly three weeks now and their work there is coming to an end. They have spent hours on the strait, going back and forth visiting our receiver array and downloading data about smolt and kelt passage. They've also been fishing a fyke net in L'Anse-Amour on the Labrador side looking for smolt and taking small samples for a fish health project. More recently, they've hired a commercial fishing boat to tow our live trawl in the strait. They've been looking to capture post-smolts from Gulf of St. Lawrence rivers.

If we are able to capture post-smolts at the strait, we'd potentially be able to tag them with larger tags than we can currently use for smolts in rivers. That would mean longer battery life and the potential to further investigate the migration beyond the Strait of Belle Isle, an area that is very difficult to examine now. Their reconnaissance trip has proven very useful in terms of methods, equipment and results. When the tag tech improves to a suitable point, we'll be more prepared to pursue this avenue of investigation.



Last week, they were visited by a killer whale several times, but this week it was a beluga that came to say hello. The curious cetacean showed up at the wharf and rolled on its side to gain a better view of our researchers. Eric and Heather are now driving back through beautiful scenery towards the ferry that will carry them home. Next week, once they've returned with the boat, we'll head up to the Miramichi to collect receivers that remain in the river.

Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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Capelin, Killers and Salmon
by Graham on 

The mid-summer finally finds out crew in Newfoundland and Labrador with some good weather. Eric and Heather have been downloading the receiver array in the Strait of Belle Isle and the salmon have begun to pass through.  They have also been fishing the fyke net, though have not caught any post-smolts yet. Lots of capelin and a lone adult salmon have been caught and released on their way however. They are now out on the big boats with the live-trawl in the strait itself, and we eagerly wait to hear details of what they find.

They did have a few visitors in the form of killer whales over the past few days. While the Orcas frequent inshore waters on the Pacific Coast, out here they tend to stay offshore, except for some areas of Newfoundland and Labrador and the Strait of Belle Isle.



Back in New Brunswick, ASF staff were at the Department of Fisheries and Ocean's Mactaquac Biodiversity Facility taking some samples from migrating salmon for the fish health project. These fish were caught by DFO as they reach the Mactaquac Dam, are sorted and measured and then trucked beyond the dam to continue on their way. We're taking a few small tissue samples to compare disease agent presence between stocks that have to pass through aquaculture areas and those that don't. The sampled fish are anesthetized before hand and are released with the rest of the fish afterwards. The day went well and we'll be back late this week to finish the sampling. Unfortunately, the numbers returning to the Saint John River so far this year are not too high.



Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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What the Fyke?
by Graham on 
It's the beginning of July and ASF biologist Eric Brunsdon and Dalhousie University summer student Heather Perry are searching for post smolt at the Strait of Belle Isle. Post smolt are juvenile salmon on their first ocean migration and ASF's research has shown that almost all of them coming from Gulf of St. Lawrence rivers pass through the Strait of Belle Isle.

Capturing post smolt will give valuable information about their size and condition, and by eventually tagging these growing young salmon, ASF will be able to expand the reach of our tracking program further into the Labrador Sea.

Eric and Heather began the week by setting up a fyke net off L'Anse-Amour on the Labrador side of the Strait of Belle Isle. A fyke net is a fixed trap with hoops and long wings that gently captures fish moving along the coast. It's shaped so fish that have entered the fyke net are discouraged from leaving. The net will be checked at least once a day for post-smolts and to release any by-catch. The fish are not harmed by becoming trapped in the net. It took a long day to site and set it up, but it is now fishing well.


They are also checking on and downloading the receiver array recently deployed across the strait. The fyke net and data downloads will serve to alert them that post-smolts are passing through the strait. They will then begin live-trawling using local fishers to capture the fish as they pass the strait. Meanwhile, back at the office, ASF Biologist Jason Daniels is using the early data from the receivers in the Miramichi River and sea-surface temperature data to predict when the post-smolts will arrive where Eric and Heather are. So far, it looks like they are ahead of the game and are well-prepared for the arrival of post-smolts from southern Gulf of St. Lawrence rivers. We'll keep in contact with the crew in Labrador for any updates, no salmon so far, but they have seen some whales and a few icebergs!
Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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SoBI It.
by Graham on 

As the end of June nears, salmon smolts from Gulf of St. Lawrence rivers are getting closer to the Strait of Belle Isle (SoBI). For many years, ASF has deployed lines of receivers across the strait to detect tagged smolt as they pass. Last week, ASF's Vice President of Research Jon Carr and Newfoundland and Labrador program director Don Ivany laid out the receivers with the help of lobster fishermen Loomis Way. There are two lines to increase the chances of detection and each line consists of receivers placed about 600m apart. The southern line also has sentinel tags, the same as those placed inside out migrating smolt, fixed in place between some receivers. These sentinel tags allow us to gauge the detection probability, or effectiveness of the line. While tags can be heard by receivers several hundred meters away in optimal conditions, conditions in the ocean are usually less than ideal. This allows us to calculate how many fish we may have missed and adjust our estimates accordingly.



Once Jon Carr finished deploying gear, he went over to the Labrador side to meet up with ASF Biologist Eric Brunsdon and Dalhousie student Heather Perry to help with preparations for their activities. They'll be conducting some surveys of the passing smolts using live trawl and fyke nets. Their attempts will help guide our activities over the next few years and hopefully with emerging technologies to extend our tracking capabilities into the North Atlantic. We look forward to more updates and photos from our staff in the field in the coming weeks.

Happy Canada Day.

Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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Downloads from Upstream
by Graham on 

This week is all about data capture. Mike and Eric are waiting on the weather to visit Miramichi receiver installations to download some and retrieve others. The smolts have passed by now and are on their way to the Strait of Belle Isle. At the strait, Don Ivany and a local fisher are gearing up to get the array into the water there to be ready for the smolts' passing. Some receivers will be left in Miramichi to monitor returning adults.



Michael, our summer student from Dalhousie University, and I spent a long day yesterday around both branches of the Miramichi. We were collecting receivers we had placed there a month ago to detect passing smolts. While some receivers further downstream are left in, these are removed much earlier. Since the smolts have passed and the adults are detected eslewhere, we remove these receivers to make sure we get the data and so that they are out of the way of any anglers in those sections.

Eric and Heather, our other Dalhousie University summer student, will be headed to Newfoundland on the weekend to begin our expanded activites there. They'll be looking to capture post-smolts to collect information from them before releasing them on their way. They'll also be sampling for a fish health program, looking at the presence of certain pathogens from Gulf of St. Lawrence salmon. They'll be gone for a few weeks and working hard with local fishers, I'm sure they'll take the some time here and there to enjoy the local scenery.

Graham Chafe, ASF Research.

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Live Trapping Smolt at Sea
by Atlantic Salmon Federation on 

by Graham Chafe, ASF Biologist

In about three weeks, ASF Biologist Eric Brunsdon and Dalhousie University student Heather Perry will be packing the truck and skiff and heading towards Newfoundland and Labrador. They'll be undertaking a reconnaissance mission in the Strait of Belle Isle for a few weeks. They'll be in the same area as our receiver array, and will check on it while they are there.
 
Tagging technology is incredible right now, but we can't tag a smolt leaving a river and track it for long enough to cover the portion of the migration from post-smolt to returning adult, either grilse or multi-winter. Technology is improving though, and we plan to be able to maximize the opportunity when it arises.
 
In order to tag fish up there, we'll have to catch fish up there. To that end, Eric and Heather, with the help of a crew of local fishers, will be using a trawl net specially designed to keep fish alive and safe in the cod end. We tested that out on Passamaquoddy Bay a few weeks ago, you can see a video on ASF's Facebook page.


Inspecting a trap net that will be used in Strait of Belle Isle. Photo Graham Chafe/ASF

On Monday of this week, we went out on a Huntsman Marine Science Centre boat to test out the deployment of a large fyke net.


Deploying a floating trap net experimentally in Passamaquoddy Bay. Photo: Graham Chafe/ASF

This type of net is fixed in place near shore. Fish that are moving parallel to the shore encounter a lead net that diverts them to the trap portion of the net. Widely used in both scientific and small scale food fishing, fyke nets are easy to deploy and tend when they are of smaller size. Ours is quite large, Heather and Eric have their work cut out for them. They'll be checking the net one or more times a day and taking measurements and biological information from any salmon that are caught before releasing them on their way.
 
Graham Chafe, ASF Research.
 

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