State of Populations



There are 17 distinct populations of wild Atlantic salmon in North America, including 16 in Canada and one in the United States. Populations are determined by genetic analysis and wild Atlantic salmon from different regions demonstrate unique life histories and characteristics.

State of Population

COSEWIC status:Data deficient
SARA status:No Status
Notable Rivers: Riviere a la Baliene, Riviere aux Feuilles, George River, Koksoak River, Nastapoka River (Hudson Bay)

Background:
The Nunavik population inhabits five rivers in Arctic Quebec emptying into Ungava Bay and Hudson Bay. It is the northernmost Atlantic salmon population in Canada and the westernmost in the world, separated by 650 kilometres from the closest neighbouring populations in Labrador. Because of cold water conditions, smolt spend up to seven years in freshwater before migrating to sea, compared to 2 years in southern North America.

Fisheries:
There are active aboriginal and recreational fisheries for Atlantic salmon from the Nunavik population. As of 2018, it is mandatory for recreational anglers to use the services of a guide in this region. In 2017, angling pressure on Nunavik rivers was the highest since 1997 with a fishing success rate of 2.56 salmon per day. A harvest of 1,800 salmon and grilse is reported for the indigenous fishery, but this is not considered an accurate estimate.

Current Population Status: None of the five known salmon rivers in Nunavik are monitored for adult returns and no current population estimates are available. However, catch data from recreational fisheries indicates increasing abundance in recent years.

Sources:
COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada


Bilan de l’exploitation du saumon au Quebec en 2017
COSEWIC status:Not at Risk
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Eagle River, Flowers River, Naskaupi River, Pinware River, Sand Hill River

Background:
The Labrador population is comprised of 91 known salmon rivers and dozens of additional tributaries and streams that contain salmon. Geographically, this population stretches from the Napetipi River in Quebec to the Fraser River near the Labrador community of Nain. Following a moratorium on commercial netting in 1998, and the eventual closure of all Canadian commercial salmon fisheries in 2000, the abundance of wild Atlantic salmon in the Labrador population increased dramatically. Labrador remains one of the healthiest wild Atlantic salmon populations in the world.

Fisheries:
Active recreational and aboriginal fisheries target salmon from the Labrador population. Additionally, a resident trout fishery routinely takes Atlantic salmon as by-catch. In 2017, DFO estimated a total aboriginal and subsistence harvest in Labrador of 13,600 grilse and large salmon. The recreational fishery for the entire province of Newfoundland and Labrador harvested 19,400 grilse in 2017, a portion coming from the Labrador population. Anglers must release all large salmon.

Current Population Status:
In 2008, COSEWIC estimated the Labrador population consisted of 235,874 mature Atlantic salmon, a 308 per cent increase compared to 1993. There are currently four monitored rivers in the population area, most suffering declines in 2016 and 2017. Only the English River achieved it’s egg conservation limit (249%) in 2017. The other three monitored rivers saw an average 53 per cent decline in egg deposition compared to the most recent six year average.


Sources:

DFO: Stock Assessment of Newfoundland and Labrador Atlantic Salmon – 2017

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada


Counting Fences
COSEWIC Status:Not at risk
SARA Status:No status
Notable Rivers: Main River, Exploits River, Gander River, Gambo River, Terra Nova River

Background:
Stretching from the top of Newfoundland’s Great Northern Peninsula to the southern tip of the Avalon Peninsula, the Northeast Newfoundland population has 127 documented salmon rivers with additional transient populations present is a substantial number of small streams. Unique for North American salmon, this population shows evidence of European DNA, suggesting colonization from Europe after the last ice age. While the Northeast Newfoundland population is predominantly made up of grilse, some rivers also have rare zero sea-winter salmon which only spend a few months in the ocean before returning to spawn.

Fisheries:
There are active recreational fisheries targeting salmon from the Northeast Newfoundland population. The recreational fishery for the entire province of Newfoundland and Labrador harvested 19,400 grilse in 2017, a portion coming from the Northeast Newfoundland population. Anglers must release all large salmon.

Current Population Status:
COSEWIC determined that in 2008 the Northeast Newfoundland population was comprised of approximately 80,505 mature adult salmon. Although the population was considered stable, it was noted that increased returns expected after the closure of commercial fishing in the area in 1992 were not realized. There are currently six monitored rivers within the range of the Northeast Newfoundland population. In 2017 five of six showed declines from the most recent five year average.

Sources:

DFO: Stock Assessment of Newfoundland and Labrador Atlantic Salmon – 2017

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

Counting Fences
COSEWIC Status:Threatened
SARA Status:No status
Notable Rivers: Conne River, Garnish River, Long Harbour River, White Bear River, Grey River

Background:
Covering the entire south coast of insular Newfoundland from Mistaken Point in the east to Cape Ray in the west, this population includes 104 known salmon rivers. Unlike populations to the north and west which experience ocean conditions influenced by the Labrador Current, the South Newfoundland salmon population faces marine conditions governed by the warmer Gulf Stream. Rivers in the area show a great deal of variation in smolt age, and there are early and late runs of salmon. Extensive hybridization from escaped aquaculture salmon has been confirmed in the area.

Fisheries:
There is an active recreational fishery for Atlantic salmon from the South Newfoundland population. The recreational fishery for the entire province of Newfoundland and Labrador took 19,400 grilse in 2017, a portion coming from South Newfoundland rivers. A mixed stock net fishery conducted by citizens of the nearby French territory of St-Pierre et Miquelon also removes adult salmon returning to South Newfoundland rivers. Although the Miawpukek (Conne River) Mi’kmaq First Nation holds an aboriginal fishing license for salmon, the community has not fished since 1997 due to conservation concerns.

Current Population Status: COSEWIC found that in 2008 the total number of adult salmon in the South Newfoundland population was 21,866, a 36 per cent decrease compared to 1993. Over the same time period, neighbouring populations remained stable or increased. Open net pen salmon aquaculture has severely affected South Newfoundland rivers. In 2017, there were five monitored rivers in the area. The Conne River had the lowest returns on record, exhibiting a decline of 91 per cent compared to 1986. Returns to other monitored rivers were generally down as well.

Sources:

DFO: Stock Assessment of Newfoundland and Labrador Atlantic Salmon – 2017


COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

Counting Fences
COSEWIC status:Not at risk
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Crabbes River, Grand Codroy River, Harry’s River, Humber River, Serpentine River

Background:
The Southwest Newfoundland population extends northward from Cape Ray up the west coast of insular Newfoundland to a point near the abandoned community of Chimney Cove. There are 40 known salmon rivers in the area. Southwest Newfoundland has the youngest mean smolt age, the lowest proportion of female grilse, and the largest salmon of all populations on the island of Newfoundland.

Fisheries:
There is an active recreational fishery targeting salmon from the Southwest Newfoundland Atlantic salmon population. The recreational fishery for the entire province of Newfoundland and Labrador harvested 19,400 grilse in 2017, a portion coming from Southwest Newfoundland rivers. All large salmon are released.

Current Population Status:
COSEWIC found that following the closure of commercial salmon fishing in 1993, the number of adult Southwest Newfoundland salmon increased 134% to 44,566 in 2008. Unfortunately, insular Newfoundland has experienced significant adult salmon declines in recent years. The Southwest Newfoundland population includes two monitored rivers. In 2017, total adult return to the Harry’s River were 35% below the most recent five year average. Corner Brook Stream, a river recovered from extirpation, exceeded egg conservation limits in 2017 (145%), as it has for more than a decade.

Sources:

DFO: Stock Assessment of Newfoundland and Labrador Atlantic Salmon – 2017 http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/SAR-AS/2018/2018_034-eng.pdf

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada: http://0104.nccdn.net/1_5/042/0f6/076/atlantic_salmon_2011-en.pdf

Counting Fences:
http://www.nfl.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/nl/salmoncounts
COSEWIC status:Not at risk
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: River of Ponds, St. Genevieve River, Torrent River, Portland Creek, Western Brook

Background:
The Northwest Newfoundland population segment begins close to the community of Trout River and extends along the Great Northern Peninsula to the tip of Quirpon Island. There are 34 known salmon rivers in the area and runs are comprised mostly of grilse although some rivers such as the St. Genevieve, River of Ponds, and Big East do have multi sea-winter salmon component.

Fisheries:
There is an active recreational fishery for wild Atlantic salmon from the Northwest Newfoundland population. In 2010 COSEWIC found that angling effort on this population had decreased approximately 20 per cent compared to the mid-1990s. The recreational fishery for the entire province of Newfoundland and Labrador harvested 19,400 grilse in 2017, a portion coming from Northwest Newfoundland rivers. All large salmon are released.

Current Population Status:
COSEWIC determined in 2008 that the Northwest Newfoundland salmon population was stable, comprised of an estimated 31,179 adult salmon, unchanged since 1993. In 2017, two rivers within the Northwest Newfoundland population boundaries were assessed; Torrent River and Western Arm Brook. Both healthily exceeded conservation requirements but remained below the recent five-year average for adult returns.

Sources:

DFO: Stock Assessment of Newfoundland and Labrador Atlantic Salmon – 2017

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

Counting Fences
COSEWIC status:Special concern
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Etamamiou River, Olomane River, St-Augustin River, Washiscoutai River,

Background:
The Quebec Eastern North Shore population includes 22 known salmon rivers along the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence stretching from the Kegaska River east to the Checatica River. River temperatures in the area are generally cool and runs are comprised mostly of grilse.

Fisheries:
There are active recreational and aboriginal fisheries for salmon from the Quebec Eastern North Shore population area. Recreational fisheries occurred on 13 of 22 rivers in 2017. 690 salmon were landed by anglers and 98 per cent were released. Catches were up 6 per cent over the recent five year average according to Quebec’s Ministere des Forets, de la Faune et des Parcs (MFFP).

Current Population Status:
COSEWIC estimated that in 2008 the Quebec Eastern North Shore population consisted of 4,964 adult salmon. Between 1993 and 2008 the total population remained declined by 14 per cent. In 2017, there was one monitored river in the area, the Vieux-Forte. Although total returns were similar to the recent five year average, large salmon increased 172 per cent compared to 2016, the most multi sea-winter salmon ever recorded on this river.

Sources:

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

Bilan de l’exploitation du saumon au Quebec en 2017
COSEWIC status:Special concern
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Natashquan River, Escoumins River, Godbout River, Moisie River

Background:
The Quebec Western North Shore population includes 32 rivers between the communities of Tadoussac and Natashquan on the North Shore of the St. Lawrence River. The area is home to some of the largest Atlantic salmon in North America, with the majority of adult returns comprised of two and three sea-winter salmon.

Fisheries:
There are active recreational and aboriginal fisheries targeting salmon from the Quebec Western North Shore population. Recreational catches have been stable or decreasing, with the number of fish released alive increasing overall.

Current Population Status:
In 2008, COSEWIC estimated the Quebec Western North Shore population consisted of 15,135 adults, a 24 per cent decrease compared to 1993. In 2017, returns to the westernmost rivers in the population area (Quebec salmon zone Q7) grilse runs were down 50 per cent and large salmon returns decreased eight per cent. However, in general, the Quebec Western North Shore population is considered to be healthy.

Sources:

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

Bilan de l’exploitation du saumon au Quebec en 2017
COSEWIC Status:Endangered
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Jupiter River, MacDonald River, Riviere aux Saumons, Chaloupe River

Background: Comprised of 29 salmon bearing rivers, the Anticosti Island population is remote and little disturbed by human activity. However, widely variable river flows, from spring floods to summer drought, are thought to be a limiting factor for salmon production. More than half or returning adults are found in three of the island’s rivers, including the Jupiter, Aux Saumon, and De la Chaloupe.

Fisheries: There is currently a recreational fishery on five Anticosti Island rivers. The retention of grilse is permitted while all large salmon must be released. In 2017, angling catches were down 44 per cent compared to the previous year, attributed to poor fishing conditions.

Current Population Status: Overall, salmon populations on Anticosti Island are relatively small. In 2010, COSEWIC estimated a total adult abundance of 2,400, a net decline of 40 per cent compared to 1993. This small number of adults and declining trend led to Anticosti Island salmon being assessed as endangered, however, since then, the population has increased. Between 2006 and 2012, DFO estimated the population was fairly constant at an estimated 3,500 adults, and in 2017 the government of Quebec reported an 11 per cent increase in returns compared to the year before.

Sources:
DFO Recovery Potential Assessment for Anticosti Island Salmon

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

Bilan de l’exploitation du saumon au Quebec en 2017
COSEWIC status:Special concern
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Jaqcues Cartier River, Riviere du Gouffre, St-Jean River

Background:
The Inner St. Lawrence Atlantic salmon population inhabits nine rivers that stretch from the Riviere Ouelle, 150 kilometres outside Quebec City, to the Ste-Marguerite River on the north shore of the St. Lawrence. The historic range of this population once included rivers close to Montreal, but habitat destruction and dams led to extirpations beginning over a century ago. Most Inner St. Lawrence rivers have been heavily stocked although overall population size remains low.

Fisheries:
There are active recreational fisheries targeting salmon from the Inner St. Lawrence population. In 2017, statistics from the government of Quebec, which include rivers outside the area defined by COSEWIC, indicate a 30 per cent decrease in angler catches and 15 per cent fewer days of angling. The number of salmon being released by anglers is increasing.

Current Population Status:
According to COSEWIC, the Inner St. Lawrence population was comprised of 5,000 mature individuals in 2008, a five per cent increase over 1993 estimates. In 2017 returns to monitored rivers in the area indicate the population is stable, close to or above the most recent five year average.

Sources:

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

Bilan de l’exploitation du saumon au Quebec en 2017
COSEWIC status:Extinct
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Credit River, Wilmot Creek, Ganaraska River

Background:
Once present in 47 creeks and rivers around Lake Ontario and the extreme upper portion of the St. Lawrence River, the Lake Ontario Atlantic salmon population is considered extinct. Historic numbers were thought to be vast, but habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 1700s decimated the population. Unlike other Atlantic salmon populations, these fish did not migrate to the Atlantic Ocean, instead they used Lake Ontario for the ‘at-sea’ portion of their lifecycle.

Fisheries:
There are no active fisheries for Lake Ontario Atlantic salmon.

Current Population Status:
Restoring wild Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario was initially attempted in 1868 when the first government fish hatchery in North America was opened in Newcastle, Ontario. Successive attempts have been made, and the latest, launched in 2006, is ongoing.

Sources:

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada
COSEWIC status:Threatened
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Cascapedia River, Restigouche River, Miramichi River, Margaree River

Background:
The Gaspe-Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence Atlantic population is comprised of 78 known salmon rivers in four separate Canadian provinces. Geographically, the area stretches from the Ouelle River (not included) on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River estuary around the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the northern tip of Cape Breton Island. Rivers in this area among the most sought-after destinations in the world and produce the majority of North American salmon.

Fisheries:
Active recreational and aboriginal fisheries occur throughout the Gaspe-Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence population region. With the exception of rivers in Quebec, all recreational fisheries are limited to live release only for conservation reasons. Although stocking is generally avoided today, the practice was widespread throughout this region for approximately a century.

Current Population Status:
In 2008, COSEWIC estimated a total adult salmon population of 103,149, a decline of nearly 30 per cent compared to 1993. In 2017, the Miramichi River did not achieve egg conservation limits in either the Northwest or Southwest branch while the Restigouche hit 135 per cent of conservation limits. Rivers on the Gaspe Peninsula continue to post relatively healthy returns and the Margaree River in Cape Breton continually exceeds conservation requirements. Of 24 salmon rivers surveyed on Prince Edward Island in 2017, five exceeded conservation requirements.

Sources:

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

2017 DFO Stock Assessment of Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence Atlantic Salmon

Counting Fences
COSEWIC status:Endangered
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Middle River, Baddeck River, Ingonish River, North River

Background:
The Eastern Cape Breton Atlantic salmon population is present in 30 rivers that empty into Bras d’Or Lake and the Atlantic Ocean along the east coast of Cape Breton Island. Populations are composed of mostly grilse in the north, with a higher component of large salmon in rivers at the southern extent of the population.

Fisheries:
Although assessed as endangered, there are active recreational and aboriginal fisheries for Eastern Cape Breton Atlantic salmon. The recreational fishery is live release only and currently takes place on three rivers – the Middle, Baddeck, and North.

Current Population Status:
COSEWIC estimated that in 2008 the Eastern Cape Breton population was comprised of 1,150 adult salmon, a 29 per cent decline compared to 1993. In 2017, four rivers were assessed by DFO, including the Middle, Baddeck, North, and Clyburn Brook. None of the assessed rivers met conservation requirements. Currently, the provincial government runs a stocking program on rivers open to recreational angling.

Sources:

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

2017 DFO Stock Status Update of Atlantic Salmon in Salmon Fishing Areas 19-21 and 23

DFO Recovery Potential Assessment for Eastern Cape Breton Atlantic Salmon
COSEWIC status:Endangered
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: Medway River, LaHavre River, West River (Sheet Harbour), St. Mary’s River

Background: The Nova Scotia Southern Uplands population stretches from Cape Split in the Bay of Fundy along the southern and eastern shores of the Nova Scotia mainland to the community of Canso. Through the 1970s and 1980s, most rivers in the Nova Scotia Southern Uplands population area were severely affected by acid rain, decreasing salmon survival by as much as 90 per cent. Historically, 72 rivers in the area were thought to have Atlantic salmon, but by the year 2000, DFO estimated more than half were extirpated.

Fisheries: There are currently no active salmon fisheries in the Nova Scotia Southern Upland population region. In 2009 the recreational fishery was closed for conservation reasons and aboriginal food, social, and ceremonial fisheries are inactive. Commercial fisheries in the area were closed in 1984.

Current Population Status: Southern Upland salmon populations are generally considered to be at or near historic lows. DFO estimates populations have declined from annual adult returns of 113,000 in 1980 to fewer than 5,000 in 2017. DFO monitors returns on the LaHave River and the Sackville River which had 118 and 35 adult returns in 2017 respectively. The West River (Sheet Harbour), site of a major recovery project led by the Nova Scotia Salmon Association, is also assessed. Between 60 and 100 adults are returning annually.

Sources:
COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada


2017 DFO Stock Status Update of Atlantic Salmon in Salmon Fishing Areas 19-21 and 23


DFO Recovery Potential Assessment for Nova Scotia Southern Upland Atlantic Salmon


Counting Fences
COSEWIC Status:Endangered
SARA Status:Endangered
Notable Rivers: Petitcodiac River, Big Salmon River, Stewiacke River, Gaspereau River

Background:
Inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic salmon were historically present in 32 rivers beginning at the western edge of the Minas Basin in Nova Scotia. Unlike other North American populations which migrate long distances to Greenland and the Labrador Sea, these fish spend the marine phase of their life within the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine. This once robust population has been exposed to large scale habitat destruction, reckless stocking, and devastating effects from open net-pen salmon aquaculture.

Fisheries:
There are currently no active fisheries for Inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic salmon. Commercial harvests lasted from the 1800s until a closure in 1984. In 1990 recreational and aboriginal food fisheries were closed for conservation reasons. The last harvests in the inner Bay of Fundy, recreationally and by First Nation’s, took place in 1997 during a limited re-opening of the Gaspereau River in Nova Scotia.

Current Population Status:
Once thought to have consisted of 40,000 mature adults in the early 20th
century, by 1999 less than 250 wild Atlantic salmon returned to all rivers in the Inner Bay of Fundy. Recovery projects are underway on the Big Salmon River, Upper Salmon River, Petitcodiac River, and Stewiacke River, but so far self-sustaining populations have not been restored. A recent study by DFO confirmed wide-spread introgression of aquaculture salmon genes in the population, including from domesticated salmon of European origin.

Sources:

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada

DFO Recovery Potential Assessment for Inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic Salmon

Environment Canada Recovery Strategy for Inner Bay of Fundy Atlantic Salmon

Review of the Science Associated with the Inner Bay of Fundy Live Gene Bank and Supplementation Programs

2017 DFO Stock Status Update of Atlantic Salmon in Salmon Fishing Areas 19-21 and 23
COSEWIC Status:Endangered
SARA status:No status
Notable Rivers: St. John River, Hammond River, Nashwaak River, Tobique River

Background:
Stretching from the St. Croix River on the Canada-United States border up to and including the St. John River and its tributaries, the Outer Bay of Fundy population includes 20 known salmon rivers. The St. John River was once North America’s most productive salmon watershed, but dams and habitat destruction have pushed populations to the verge of extinction. The Serpentine River, a tributary of the St. John has a unique Atlantic salmon population that returns late in the fall and spawns the following spring.

Fisheries:
There are currently no fisheries for Atlantic salmon of the Outer Bay of Fundy population. All commercial fisheries were closed in 1984 and since 1998 there have been no allocations for aboriginal fisheries and no recreational fisheries.

Current Population Status:
In 2008, COSEWIC estimated that the Outer Bay of Fundy population consisted of 7,584 adult salmon, a 64 per cent decline compared to 1993. There are currently three monitored rivers in the area. In 2017, the St. John River had 184 large salmon and 326 grilse return, equal to 4 per cent of egg conservation requirements. The Nashwaak had 100 large salmon and 203 grilse, accounting for seven per cent of egg conservation requirements. The Magaguadavic, which is monitored by ASF, had zero wild salmon return, a first in living memory.

Sources:
COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Atlantic Salmon in Canada


DFO Recovery Potential Assessment for Outer Bay of Fundy Atlantic Salmon


2017 DFO Stock Status Update of Atlantic Salmon in Salmon Fishing Areas 19-21 and 23

Counting Fences
ESA Status:Endangered
:
Notable Rivers: Dennys River, Penobscot River, Kennebec River, Sheepscot River

Background:
Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon are the last surviving U.S. population, concentrated in 10 north eastern Maine rivers. Although Atlantic salmon once existed in 55 rivers as far south as Connecticut, dam building, pollution, and commercial fishing wiped out the majority of populations. Today, Atlantic salmon in the United States are protected by the Endangered Species Act and a federally coordinated recovery effort is underway.

Fisheries:
There are currently no fisheries for Gulf of Maine Atlantic salmon. The recreational fishery was closed in 1999, reopening briefly in 2006. The commercial fishery in Maine, which once caught salmon by the hundreds of thousands was closed permanently in 1948 when the recorded harvest on the Penobscot River was only 40 salmon.

Current Population Status:
After extensive dam removals and persistent conservation stocking, wild Atlantic salmon returns to the Gulf of Maine have stabilized, although at very low numbers. In 2017, 1,041 adult Atlantic salmon returned to all rivers in the United States, including 539 large salmon and 310 grilse to the Penobscot River. The 2017 U.S. total represents a 400 fish increase over 2016.

Sources:
NOAA Recovery Plan for Gulf of Maine Atlantic Salmon


Maine Counting Fences
2017 North American Highlights
As reported in the 2018 Reports of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES):

Multi sea-winter salmon returns were estimated to be 97,400 in 2017, a five per cent decrease from 2016 (102,400) and only 64 per cent of the North American conservation limit (152,548).
Grilse returning to North America were estimated at 340,600 in 2017, the second consecutive year of decline.
Canada’s reported harvest in 2017 was 112 tonnes, or approximately 44,000 large salmon and grilse. Recreational harvests (48.9 tonnes) occurred in Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador. Indigenous food, social, and ceremonial fisheries (61.3 tonnes) were conducted in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Labrador. The remainder of salmon were taken as by-catch in the Labrador Resident Food Fishery (1.6 tonnes).
Greenland’s 2017 reported harvest was 28 tonnes, or approximately 6,100 large salmon. Sampling indicated that 74 per cent of the catch was of North American origin.